Test Of Problem Solving 2 Adolescent (TOPS-2)

Test Of Problem Solving 2 Adolescent

Linda Bowers, Rosemary Huisingh and Carolyn LoGiudice


TOPS 2 Adolescent


· Ages: 12-17 Years

· Grades: 7-12

· Testing Time: 40 minutes


Troubled teens may have a language impairment related to the process of thinking that affects good decision-making and problem solving.

The TOPS 2 Adolescent can identify such language-based problem-solving deficits. The test assesses five different decision-making skill areas critical to academic and social success. Use the results to identify a student's areas of strength and weakness to set up an effective therapy program.


The TOPS 2 Adolescent uses a natural context of problem-solving situations related to adolescent experiences. Items are presented verbally and in print to minimise possible auditory memory or reading deficiencies.


Rationale - While other tests may assess the thinking skills of students by tapping mathematical, spatial, or nonverbal potential, the TOPS 2 Adolescent assesses critical thinking abilities based on the student's language strategies using logic and experience. 


Based on the research of Richard Paul, the TOPS 2 Adolescent emphasises the integrative disposition of critical thinking by focusing on these cognitive processes: understanding/comprehension, analysis, interpretation, self-regulation, evaluation, explanation, inference, insight, decision-making, intent/purpose, problem solving, and acknowledgment.        



·   Making Inferences - Provide logical explanations about situations, combining what is known or observed with previous experiences and background information. Why does the Board of Education want the volunteering to be done outside of school time?

·   Determining Solutions - Provide logical solutions for various situations presented in passages read aloud. How could students find out about ways to volunteer in the community?

·   Problem Solving - Recognise a problem, think of alternative solutions, evaluate the options, and state an appropriate solution for a given situation. What problem does the Board of Education face with the students or their parents?

·   Interpreting Perspectives - Evaluate other points of view in order to make a conclusion. How do you think most ninth graders feel about the new rule?

·   Transferring Insights - Compare analogous situations by using information stated in a passage read aloud. What could you do if you didn't agree with a school policy?


Examiner Qualifications - The test should only be administered by a trained professional familiar with language disorders (e.g., speech-language pathologist, psychologist). Paraprofessionals or support personnel cannot adequately administer and score the test.


Test Procedure - Each item is presented verbally with the printed stimulus from the Reading Passages Book visible to the student. The subject follows along, silently reading the situation and item.

Each task is presented in its entirety to every student.

Acceptable responses for each test item are indicated on the test form.


Test Scoring - A score of 1 or 0 is assigned to each response based on the relevancy of the response to the question and on the quality of the response. 

Acceptable responses are indicated on the test form and acceptable and unacceptable response examples are listed in the Examiner's Manual.


Extra Helps - The Discussion of Performance in the Examiner's Manual includes:

·   ways test performance may relate to a student's academic performance

·   suggestions for intervention

·   glossary of testing terms

·   references


COMPLETE TOPS 2 ADOLESCENT KIT INCLUDES: Examiner’s Manual, Reading Passages Book, 20 Test Forms. (2005)


34130...TOPS 2 ADOLESCENT Complete Kit

34131...TOPS 2 ADOLESCENT Test Forms (20)


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