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Ages: 5 through 18 years
Testing Time: 40 to 60 minutes
The Cognitive Assessment System–Second Edition (CAS2) is a well-researched, norm-referenced measure of cognitive ability based on the well-researched cognitive/neuropsychological theory called PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive). The CAS2 was designed to measure cognitive processing abilities important for a broad range of differential diagnoses and instructional planning in individuals ages 5-0 through 18-11. CAS2 provides practitioners with a valid and reliable tool to evaluate children’s strengths and weaknesses in important areas of cognitive processing.
The CAS2 Extended Battery has three subtests in each of the four PASS scales. The Core Battery includes two subtests from each of the four PASS scales. Each PASS scale as well as the CAS2 Full Scale yields a standard score with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15.
Planning—a cognitive process requiring the individual to determine, select, and use a strategy to solve a problem. The subtests require the solving of novel tasks. The three Planning subtests are: Planned Codes, Planned Connections, and Planned Number Matching.
Attention—a cognitive process requiring the individual to selectively attend to a particular stimulus and inhibits attending to competing stimuli. The three Attention subtests are: Expressive Attention, Number Detection, and Receptive Attention.
Simultaneous—a cognitive process involving integrating separate stimuli into a single whole or group. The three Simultaneous subtests are: Matrices, Verbal-Spatial Relations, and Figure Memory.
Successive—a cognitive process requiring the serial ordering of things. The four Successive subtests are: Word Series, Sentence Repetition (ages 5-7) or Sentence Questions (ages 8-18), and Visual Digit Span.
The CAS2 also yields five supplemental composite scores: Executive Function without Working Memory, Executive Function with Working Memory, Working Memory, Verbal Content, and Nonverbal Content. A visual versus auditory comparison is also provided.
- Administration and Scoring Manual. This manual provides general information, specific instructions for administering and scoring the subtests, norms tables, and interpretive tables.
- Interpretive and Technical Manual. This manual presents the information needed to use the test, including a discussion of the PASS theory, explanations of the test’s organization and development as well as information on standardization and norming, reliability, and validity, and interpretation of the CAS2.
- Stimulus Books 1, 2, and 3. The Stimulus Books include all the subtest stimuli used during administration of the test. The Stimulus Books provide the stimulus items for the Matrices, Verbal-Spatial Relations, Figure Memory, and Expressive Attention subtests.
- Student Response Book. The CAS2 includes two age-based Student Response Booklets, one for ages 5 through 7 years and one for ages 8 through 18 years. The booklets are intended for paper-and-pencil responses for the Planned Number Matching, Planned Codes, Planned Connections, Number Detection, and Receptive Attention subtests.
- Figure Memory Response Book. This response book is intended for the paper-and-pencil response for the Figure Memory subtest.
- Scoring Templates. A spiral-bound booklet with scoring templates offers examiners a convenient aid for ease and accuracy in scoring Response Book pages.
- Examiner Record Form. This provides space for recording responses for each subtest, as well as a summary of the scoring and permanent documentation of test results.
- Red pencils. Two red pencils, for use in subtests requiring written responses, are included in each CAS2 complete test kit.
The CAS2 was standardized using a group of 1,342 children and adolescents that closely represent the population of the U.S. Extensive reliability and validity information is reported in the Interpretive and Technical Manual that accompanies the test. The 12 subtest Core Battery Full Scale reliability is .95 with the PASS Scale reliabilities ranging from .86 to .93. Internal consistency, test-retest, and scorer reliability studies were conducted. Types of validity reported include content-description, criterion-prediction, and construct-identification. Validity with special populations, including persons with speech or language impairment, learning disability, gifted and talented, or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorder, or Asperger’s syndrome, are reported. Special attention was paid to making the CAS2 fair for minority groups. Validity evidence reported in the Interpretive and Technical Manual demonstrates the test’s value for assessment of diverse groups of children.
The Interpretive and Technical Manual provides methods for interpretation of scores. It explains how to examine the PASS profile, compare PASS scales, analyze subtests, and compare PASS scores to achievement. To determine intra-individual differences, the Interpretive and Technical Manual provides tables to evaluate the significance of the differences between the four PASS scale standard scores. It also provides similar tables to evaluate the significance of differences between scaled scores for each subtest within a PASS Scale. Actuarial values are included. The CAS2 Examiner Record Form provides an Interpretive Worksheet for the calculation and recording of PASS Scale comparisons, subtest analysis, first-to-second administration comparisons, and supplemental composite scores.
Methods for using the PASS and Full Scale scores to identify cognitive strengths and weaknesses are also provided. Due to the unique information that can be obtained from the CAS2, the results may be particularly helpful when assessing special populations. The Interpretive Handbook also contains additional resources for examiners, such as implications for intervention based on CAS2 results, describes several research-based instructional programs directly linked to PASS theory, and an illustrative CAS2 report presenting a written interpretation of CAS2 results.
COMPLETE CAS2 KIT INCLUDES: Administration and Scoring Manual, Interpretive and Technical Manual, Stimulus Books 1-3, 10 Examiner Record Forms, 5 each of the Student Response Books for 5-7 and 8-17, 10 Figure Memory Response Books, Scoring Templates, and one red pencil, all in a canvas carrying CAS2. (2014)