Profile of Creative Abilities (PCA)
· Ages: 5-0 to 14-11
· Testing Time: 30 to 40 minutes
· Administration: Individual or Small Group
The Profile of Creative Abilities (PCA) is a measure of creative ability. It is specifically designed to (1) identify students gifted in the area creative thinking, (2) monitor progress in classes of creative thinking, and (3) serve as a research tool. It was normed on a sample of 640 individuals in 11 U.S. states. This reliable test is efficient and cost-effective. It takes under an hour (approximately 30-40 minutes) to administer. Students between the ages of 5-0 and 14-11 may be tested either individually or in small groups.
Models of Creativity
PCA is based on two models of creativity. The first is based on J.P. Guildford’s (1959) Structure of Intellect (SOI), consisting of an organised set of abilities used to process information. The SOI model includes three dimensions, which determine different types of intellectual abilities: operation, content, and product. Guilford believed there exists six major groups of core creative abilities, necessary for one’s creative endeavors:
· Sensitivity to Problems — Ability to be aware of the need for change or see defects and deficiencies that need to be addressed.
· Fluency — Ability to produce a large number of ideas.
· Flexibility — Ability to change set.
· Originality — Ability to develop uncommon, yet acceptable solutions to ideas.
· Redefinition — Ability to transform an existing object or idea into one with a different design, function, or use.
· Penetration — Ability to see more than what is on the surface.
The second is based on T.M. Amabile’s (1996) Componential Model of Creativity, focusing on the social and environmental factors. This model consists of three basic components that are important in creativity.
· Domain-Relevant Skills — Includes competencies and talents that are applicable to the domain in which an individual is working.
· Creativity-Relevant Processes — Refers to the cognitive style, knowledge of heuristic, and work style that support and nurture creativity.
· Intrinsic-Task Motivation — Suggests that individuals will be most creative when they are motivated primarily by interest, employment, satisfaction, and challenge.
The PCA consists of two subtests, each measuring two aspects of divergent production.
· Drawing — Although this subtest is untimed, students are encouraged to complete it in 30 minutes or less. It is composed of 10 stimuli. The child is to use each stimulus to make or draw an original, detailed picture. It is scored based on four of the SOI’s six hypothesized creative abilities: sensitivity to problems, originality, redefinition, and penetration. Sensitivity to problems is operationalised as the number of new elements added to the pictures created by the child for each stimulus. Originality is a unique picture as compared to the normative sample. Redefinition is operationalised as orientation in which the child transforms the picture through location or position. Penetration is operationalised as perspective illustrating that the child can see more than just what is on the surface.
· Categories — In this subtest, students are to complete each form in 3 minutes, naming as many categories as possible. Composed of two 4 by 5 matrices of 20 animal pictures and figures, the child is to form groups of at least 3 pictures or figures and tell the examiners how they are grouped. It is scored based on two of the SOI’s six hypothesized creative abilities: fluency and flexibility. Fluency is the number of responses made by the student. Flexibility is the number of categories into which the student groups the pictures or figures.
The 36-item rating scale measures creative abilities, domain-relevant skills, creativity-relevant processes, and intrinsic task motivation. Each item is scored using a 4-point Likert scale based on the degree to which the child exhibits each behaviour described in the item. The rating scale can be completed by an educator (School Rating Scale) or by a parent/guardian (Home Rating Scale).
COMPLETE PCA KIT INCLUDES: Examiner’s Manual, 25 Summary and Scoring Booklets, Picture Booklet, 25 Student Formss, 25 Home Rating Scales, and 25 School Rating Scales, all in a sturdy storage box. (©2007)
12245...PCA Complete Kit