Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA-3)
Donald D. Hammill, Nancy Mather and Rhia Roberts
· Testing Time: 45 to 60 minutes
· Administration: Individual
The ITPA3 is an effective measure of children's spoken and written language. All of the subtests measure some aspect of language, including oral language, writing, reading, and spelling. The content in this edition is consistent with Charles Osgood's Original Communication Model and also with the adaptations of that model made by Samuel Kirk, James McCarthy, and Winifred Kirk. Chief among the assumptions underlying this model are: a) language is an important part of a child’s development, b) the essential components of language are measurable, c) these language components can be improved through instruction, and d) instruction in language is relevant to success in basic school subjects, particularly reading and writing.
PRIMARY USES OF THE ITPA3
This test can help you:
· determine children's specific strengths and weaknesses among linguistic abilities,
· document children's development in language as a result of intervention programs,
· identify children with general linguistic delays in the development of spoken and written language,
· contribute to an accurate diagnosis of dyslexia (adequate spoken language with poor word identification and spelling skill), using the oral language/written language discrepancy score,
· clarify the aspects of language that are difficult for a particular child (e.g., phonology, syntax, semantics),
· identify specific strengths and weaknesses in language to assist with the development of appropriate instructional goals, and
· differentiate between children with poor phonological coding (ability to read and spell phonically regular pseudowords) and those with poor orthographic coding (ability to read and spell words with an irregular element).
Furthermore, the Sight-Symbol processing and Sound-Symbol process-ing scores help identify deficits in written symbol processing, which can aid in planning appropriate strategies and accommodations.
To enhance the clinical and diagnostic usefulness of the ITPA-3, the subtests can be combined to form 11 composites. These composites are:
· General Language Composite: Formed by combining the results of all 12 subtests. For most children, this is the best single estimate of linguistic ability because it reflects status on the widest array of spoken and written language abilities
· Spoken Language Composite: Formed by combining the results of the 6 subtests that measure aspects of oral language. The subtests assess oral language’s semantical, grammatical, and phonological aspects.
· Written Language Composite: Formed by combining the results of the 6 subtests that measure different aspects of written language. The subtests assess written language’s semantic, graphophonemic, and orthographic aspects. All subtests that involve graphemes (printed letters) to any degree in reading, writing, or spelling are assigned to this composite.
· Semantic Composite: Formed using the results of the 2 subtests that measure the understanding and use of purposeful speech.
· Grammar Composite: Formed using the 2 subtests that measure grammar used in speech (one measures morphology, the other syntax).
· Phonology Composite: The 2 subtests that make up this composite measure competency with speech sounds, including phonemic awareness. One subtest involves deleting parts of words, and the other involves recalling strings of rhyming words.
· Comprehension Composite: The results of the 2 subtests that measure the ability to comprehend written messages (i.e., to read) and to express thoughts in graphic form (i.e., to write) constitute this composite.
· Spelling Composite: The results of the 2 subtests that measure spelling form this composite.
· Sight-Symbol Processing Composite: The 2 subtests in this composite measure the pronunciation and spelling of irregular words. A part of these words has to be mastered by sight because it does not conform to the most common English spelling rules or patterns.
· Sound-Symbol Processing Composite: The 2 subtests in this composite measure the pronunciation and spelling of pseudowords (phonetically regular nonwords). These nonwords conform to standard English phoneme-to-grapheme correspondence rules involved in pronouncing printed words or spelling spoken words.
The 12 subtests of the ITPA-3 are:
Spoken Language: Spoken Analogies; Spoken Vocabulary; Morph-ological Closure; Syntactic Sentences; Sound Deletion; Rhyming Sequences
Written Language: Sentence Sequencing; Written Vocabulary; Sight Decoding; Sound Decoding; Sight Spelling; Sound Spelling
The ITPA has been improved in the following ways:
1. All ITPA-3 subtests now measure linguistic abilities, both spoken and written.
2. New subtests have been developed to be appropriate for elementary school-age children.
3. Evidence is provided to show that the basic principles in the test model are still current.
4. New normative information was collected during the years 1999 and 2000.
5. The normative sample reflects the population characteristics of the U.S.A. for 1999 and projected for the year 2000 relative to ethnicity, race, gender, disability status, geographic region, parental education, rural/urban residence, and family income.
6. The normative data have been stratified for the categories listed in #5.
7. Internal consistency, stability, and interscorer reliability for all subtests and composites are high enough to allow ITPA-3 scores to be used as the basis for making clinical judgements (i.e., rs greater than .90).
8. Validity evidence shows that all ITPA-3 subtests are useful for measuring both spoken and written language.
9. Studies showing the absence of gender, ethnic, and racial bias have been included.
10. Evidence is provided to show that the test is reliable and valid for specific gender, ethnic, and racial groups, as well as for a general population.
The new ITPA-3 Software Scoring and Report System, Version 1.1, is a quick, efficient tool to (a) convert ITPA-3 subtest raw scores into standard scores, percentile ranks, and age equivalents; (b) generate composite quotients; (c) compare ITPA-3 subtest performance and composite performance to identify significant intra-individual differences; and (d) provide a printed report of the student's ITPA-3 performance, including composite pattern analysis. Features include:
· Examinee data automatically saved
· Pull-down menus to easily navigate among software functions
· Fields for storing detailed examiner and testing information
· Three on-screen/report quotient score confidence level options (68%, 95%, and 99%)
· On-screen subtest and quotient score comparisons
· Reports printed using only Spoken or Written Language Scores
· Two report options for saving or printing
l standard clinical report (two-page summary of test scores)
l detailed clinical report (fully customized 6- to 8-page analysis including composite pattern analysis)
COMPLETE ITPA-3 KIT INCLUDES: Examiner’s manual, 25 Profile/ Examiner Record Booklets, 25 Student Response Booklets, and an Audiotape, all in a sturdy storage box. (2001)