Test Of Semantic Skills - Intermediate (TOSS-I)
Linda Bowers, Rosemary Huisingh, Carolyn LoGiudice and Jane Orman
· Ages: 9-13 Years
· Grades: 4-8
· Testing Time: 25-30 minutes
The TOSS–I is a receptive and expressive diagnostic test designed to assess key age progressive semantic skills in older students.
Test items require more advanced thinking skills, such as thinking about abstract ideas and forming conclusions. The test uses meaningful content, including curriculum vocabulary and themes, that appeals to nine- to fourteen-year-olds. Nineteen realistic illustrations depict natural, real-life scenes built around the themes of School, Learning, Community, Home, Leisure, Activities, and the Environment. Each skill is assessed in receptive and expressive formats to help determine if there is a gap in performance between these two areas.
Research indicates the importance of strong vocabulary and semantic skills for academic achievement and reading comprehension. Once students enter the fourth grade, much of the academic work is done independently versus with the entire class. If a student has deficits in semantics, he may not understand all the directions in the classroom or understand the lessons his teacher presents. The TOSS–I can be used to identify children with legitimate language disorders versus those with cultural differences or disorders affecting attention and concentration.
A picture and question format addresses receptive and expressive semantic skills.
· Identifying Labels - The examiner names an item in a picture scene and the student points to it. Show me the equator.
· Identifying Categories - The examiner names a representative member of a category and the student points to it. Show me an emergency sign.
· Identifying Attributes - The examiner describes an item by stating one of its attributes, and the student then points to the appropriate item in the scene. Show me something that has a battery.
· Identifying Functions - The examiner describes the function of an item, and the student points to the appropriate item in the scene. Show me something that stores information.
· Identifying Definitions - The examiner defines an item in a picture scene and the student points to it. An eagle gets food with its talons. Show me talons.
· Stating Labels - The examiner points to an item in the scene and the student names it. What do you call the clothing scouts wear?
· Stating Categories - The examiner names three members of a category, and the student names the category. What are these parts of a story called? time, place, mood
· Stating Attributes - The examiner directs the student to describe an item in the scene by stating one of its attributes. What is a tent made of?
· Stating Functions - The examiner points to an item in the scene and directs the student to describe what an item does or what we do with the item. This book has a table of contents. What do you use a table of contents for?
· Stating Definitions - The examiner directs the student to define an item in the scene. Every employee gets a salary. What is a salary?
The test should only be administered by a trained professional familiar with children's language disorders (e.g., speech-language pathologist, psychologist, teacher of students with learning disabilities, special education consultant, etc.). Paraprofessionals cannot adequately administer and score the test.
COMPLETE TOSS-I KIT INCLUDES: Examiner’s Manual, Picture Stimuli Book, 20 Test Forms